School of Language Arts and Media





Did you know?

Approximately 25% of the world’s languages are spoken in the Pacific region, by less than 1% of the world’s population! Papua New Guinea has more languages than any other country in the world, while Vanuatu can boast the highest number of languages per person. USP is an exciting place to study linguistics, and the logical choice for Pacific linguistics.

Study Linguistics at the heart of the world’s most multilingual region

You can study Linguistics as part of an undergraduate degree in: 

  • Linguistics
  • Pacific Language Studies 
  • Literature and Language 
  • BAGCED/BEd with a teaching subject in Literature and Language

Linguistics courses are also available as electives to students in other programme.

At postgraduate level, you can pursue a:

  • Postgraduate diploma in Linguistics
  • Postgraduate diploma in Applied Linguistics & ELT
  • MA in Linguistics or Applied Linguistics
  • PhD in Linguistics

Linguistics graduates go on to work in fields that include language teaching, journalism, translation, editing, marketing, policy and planning, business, tourism, and research.

Courses in Linguistics

Courses in Linguistics

For course descriptions, please see the course finder


LN111    Introduction to language studies
LN118    The languages of the Pacific 
LN211    The structure of English
LN216    Language use in the 21st century Pacific
LN311    English in the Pacific
LN317    Applied linguistics
LN319    Selected topics in linguistics


AL400    Research methods (for linguistics)
LN411    Advanced language analysis
LN413    Sociolinguistics
LN416    Language acquisition and multilingualism
LN418    Integrating the four skills in English
LN419    Technologies, texts and techniques for English language teaching

BA Linguistics  
LN111, LN118, LN211, LN216, LN311, LN317, with LN319 as an elective

BA Pacific Language Studies 

Core courses: LN118, LN216, LN317
Plus one of the following Language tracks:

Fijian: FJ111, FJ121, FJ211, FJ221, plus FJ311 or FJ321
Hindi: HN111, HN121, HN211, HN221, plus HN321 or HN331
French: LN111, FR101, FR201, FR301, FR302
Chinese: LN111, CN101, CN201, CN301, CN302
Cook Islands Maori: CM111, CM211, CM212, CM311, CM331
Languages of the region: Two from CM101, CN101, FJ101, FR101, HN101, plus three from a list of option courses
Rotuman: RT101, RT201, RT311, RT321, plus one of LN111, FJ101, HN101
Tongan & Niuafo’ou: TG111, TG211, plus three of TG212, TG311, TG321, TG331
Vagahau Niue: NU111, NU131, NU211, plus two of NU212, NU311, NU331
Vanuatu Language Studies: VA111, VA112, plus three of VA211, VA212, VA311, VA312

BA Literature and Language 

LN118, LN211, LN216, LN317 plus 4 Literature courses (please see the handbook for details) 

BAGCED / BEd with a teaching subject in Literature and Language
LN111, LN118, LN211, LN311 plus 4 Literature courses (please see the handbook for details)

Postgraduate diploma in Linguistics
AL400, LN411, LN413, LN416 

Postgraduate diploma in Applied Linguistics & ELT (See Frequently Asked Questions)
LN411, LN416, LN418, LN419

MA Linguistics 
EITHER: thesis only  
OR:     a supervised research project, plus two further 400-level courses, which may come from Pacific Studies, Applied Linguistics, or another appropriate discipline as approved by your supervisor

MA Applied Linguistics 
EITHER: thesis only (AL400 is a pre-requisite before starting this programme) 
OR:     a supervised research project, plus AL400 and LN413

Our Graduates

Our Graduates

Mereseini Tuivuniwai graduated in 2005 with a BA in Literature & Language and Management & Public Administration. She has since travelled the world working as Communications Officer at the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat.



Priestley Habru graduated in 2002 with a BA in Journalism and Literature & Language. He is currently the owner and editor of the Island Sun newspaper in the Solomon Islands.


Sheena Mala
graduated in 2010 with a BA in Literature/Language and Education. She now puts her degree into practice as a senior English teacher on her home island of Ambae, Vanuatu, where she is also studying towards a postgraduate diploma in Linguistics.


Wilfred Fimone was a gold medallist in Linguistics in 2014. He progressed straight onto a PG Diploma in Linguistics and is currently pursuing a Masters, focusing on his own language, Rotuman.




Priority Research Areas

Priority Research Areas

We particularly welcome expressions of interest from prospective graduate students wanting to conduct research in one of the areas below. See for guidance on the application process.

1. Documentation of Pacific languages

With almost 1,400 Austronesian languages, at least 700 Papuan languages and more than 200 Australian languages, the South Pacific is an extremely rich region linguistically. However, although these languages have developed and thrived for many thousands of years, their future cannot be taken for granted anymore. Many of the world’s languages will die out in the next hundred years under the pressure from both international languages like English, and major national languages like Standard Hindi, Bahasa Indonesia, Melanesian Pidgin, etc. The most pessimistic view assumes that, in the Pacific, no indigenous languages will be spoken by the year 2200, only English or French remaining. Although in countries with one vernacular, a strong sense of tradition, and a relatively small out-migration – such as Tonga, Kiribati or Tuvalu – traditional languages are more likely to survive, in other countries like Marshall Islands, Cook Islands and Niue, the local languages are under threat. In Fiji, the two large languages – Fijian and Hindi – may survive but decrease in dialectal diversity.

Do you speak a language or dialect with a small population? Is there a real risk for your native language to die in your own country? Do you think that one day your community will eventually shift to another language? Studying the factors that can lead to a language becoming endangered, and helping document and describe endangered languages can be a valuable contribution to understanding why a language thrives or dies, and provides a record of languages that may be about to be lost.

Language documentation generally starts with examining one aspect of a language, for example a specific lexicon (e.g. the names of plants) or a particular use of the language (e.g. the structures and words used for spatial orientation) and builds up gradually to a full picture of the language in all its complexity. Documenting means that you work with speakers of a lesser-known language to produce high quality video and audio recordings, which are then transcribed, annotated, and translated into a language of wider communication whenever possible. These materials can then be used by linguists to analyse the language, or some aspects of it, but very importantly too, by the speakers themselves in any way that they may wish. It may not be up to you to save any language! But starting to document a language can be a first step towards a revalorisation of its speakers’ knowledge, the promotion of its usage in the community, or even the development of some materials for schools.

Projects in this area require a good grasp of linguistic analysis (a high grade in LN411 or equivalent).  

Current USP projects in this area:

"Digital documentation of the botanical knowledge of Northern Khmer speakers" (Candide Simard & external colleagues). This project works with the villagers of Surin in Thailand in collaboration with the RILCA institute at Mahidol University, Bangkok, to document their knowledge of the plants and trees in the neighbouring forest, and to understand how much of this knowledge is passed on to the children... and in what language.

Image source: 'Digital documentation of the botanical knowledge of Northern Khmer speakers' (credit: Lingtournoi Pomdang)

Navigating the Weather
This research project is a collaboration between linguists, and the members of the Uto ni Yalo Trust and other specialists. In the past, knowledge of traditional navigation was passed on within the family and communities, but now the continuation of such instruction must be deliberate. Traditional navigation is being re-discovered in the Pacific, as it fulfills sustainability aims, both cultural and environmental. The core of the project is a documentation and study of the language used to express and share knowledge about seafaring. It will focus on how the Uto ni Yalo Trust (UNYT) crew, volunteers, senior navigators, trainers and trainees teach and learn navigation skills, name the artifacts they use, and describe the environment and ocean patterns they encounter.(Dr Candide Simard, Dr Apolonia Tamata)


2. Language description

Language description refers to the analysis of a language, how it works, how the words are put together, how the sentences are created, and the different means it uses to express the speakers’ messages. Linguistic description sometimes results in writing a full grammar, but more often, it results in writing about particular parts of a grammar only. It is the kind of work to undertake if you are curious and like to solve puzzles, as linguistic description involves discovering how a language works, and making this clear to other people.

Why is this work important? Languages spoken around the Pacific differ vastly from the more familiar European languages that are amply studied (consider how many shelves are devoted to English in the library!). For example, in Anejom̃ – a language spoken in Aneityum (Vanuatu) – 21 pronouns have been attested in contexts where English speakers use only one pronoun: 'we'. The set of 21 pronouns enables Anejom̃ speakers to distinguish between we-two-people, we-three-people and we-more-than-three-people, we-addressee-included and we-addressee-excluded, as well as we-past-tense, we-aorist-aspect and we-inceptive-aspect (Lynch, 1998:106)*.

Linguists working on the description of Pacific languages have an enormous contribution to make to the field of theoretical linguistics, since new insights enrich our knowledge of the world's linguistic diversity. So few Pacific languages have been studied in any depth, and much of the descriptive work that has been done has been carried out by linguists based outside the region.

Projects in this area require a good grasp of linguistic analysis (a high grade in LN411 or equivalent).  

Current/former PGR students working in this area:

  • Svetlana Kiseleva (MA, Lautoka, Fiji) Uniqueness of emphatic possessives in Tongan
  • Romina Singh (MA, 2018, Laucala, Fiji) Sketch grammar and sociolinguistic topics in Bua Fiji Hindi
  • Alice Rore (MA by SRP, 2017, Laucala, Fiji) Grammar sketch of Sulagwalu, Solomon Islands
  • Rajendra Prasad (MA by SRP, 2017, Laucala, Fiji) Grammar sketch of Nasinu Fiji Hindi
  • Carol Aru (MA, 2016, Vanuatu) A short grammar of Duidui: A language of West Ambae in Northern Vanuatu
  • Ana Kitolelei (MA, 2013, Laucala, Fiji) The Fijian of part-Europeans: a case study of Wainunu-i-caxe
  • David Healey (PhD, 2013, Vanuatu) A grammar of Maskelynes: the language of Uluveu island, Vanuatu
  • Gillian Green (PhD, 2012, Vanuatu) Pacific English: What is it, why is it and its implications
  • Hannah Vari-Bogiri (PhD, 2011, Vanuatu) Phonology and morpho-syntax of Raga, Vanuatu
  • Sébastian Lacrampe (MA, 2009, Vanuatu) Possession in Lelepa, a language of Central Vanuatu
  • Apolonia Tamata (PhD, 2007, Laucala, Fiji) The Glottal Stop in Nasorowaqa Fijian and other Oceanic Languages
  • Jane Kanas (MA, 2001, Vanuatu) Tu kaen Bislama? Wan lukluk long nasonal langwis blong Vanuatu blong soem se i gat tu kaen Bislama we ol i toktok long hem long Vila taon

*Lynch, John. Pacific Languages, an Introduction. Honolulu: The University of Hawai‘i Press.

3. Sociolinguistic variation

Have you noticed that you do not always speak in exactly the same way? You may use different languages, dialects and accents in different situations. You may adapt the way you speak when you address younger or older people; you may use different registers when you are out with your friends, or being interviewed for a job. Sociolinguistics studies how language varies in different contexts. It ranges from examining how individual speakers use language,  how people use language differently in different towns or regions, and can even contribute to how a country may decide which  language (or which variety of a language) will be taught in its schools, used on the radio or enshrined in the constitution.  

In practice, sociolinguistic research tends to focus on a single linguistic phenomenon and see how it varies across speakers, or groups of speakers. It applies both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, depending on the question it seeks to answer. Some sociolinguistic patterns can only be observed through closely examining recorded spontaneous speech, for example by comparing the use of ‘like’ as a quotative marker across generations; while others may be elucidated with interviews or surveys, for example the matched guise technique, developed to investigate people’s attitudes toward different languages or varieties.

The rich cultural and linguistic diversity of the Pacific offer ample topics to explore in this area.

Projects in this area would particularly suit students who have taken LN413, and also require a good grasp of linguistic analysis (a high grade in LN411 or equivalent).

Current/former PGR students working in this area:


  • Sandhya Kumari (MA, Laucala, Fiji) Lexical variation in the I-Kiribati and Rabian dialects
  • Bhagirati Bhan (MA by SRP, Laucala, Fiji) Code-switching between Standard Hindi and Fiji Hindi
  • Wilfred Fimone (MA, 2020, Laucala, Fiji) Variation and change of glottal stop deletion in Rotuman

Image: MA student, Wilfred Fimone, presenting his sociolinguistic data at an international conference

4. Linguistic landscapes

Linguistic landscapes is a relatively young field of sociolinguistics, which focuses on the languages that we can see in the landscape around us – on street signs, advertising boards, shop fronts, handwritten notices, graffiti, and so on. Primary data is collected via digital photographs, which are taken systematically in a pre-determined area, and then analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Although studies involve collecting and analysing data about language, they are usually really about non-linguistic phenomena such as national identity and politics, mobility and migration, colonialism and neocolonialism, and trade and globalisation. The languages that are visible (and particularly the languages that are INvisible) tell us a lot about who lives where, which ethnic groups hold power, what tensions exist between language groups, which languages are used for literacy and written purposes, and which languages are considered emblems of modernity and progress. Until recently, no linguistic landscape studies had been conducted in the Pacific at all. In 2017, we launched the first project of its kind (see below), and there is plenty of scope for research students to start their own studies within this project.

Projects in this area would particularly suit students who have taken LN216, but this is not essential.

Current USP projects in this area:

“Linguistic landscapes of the contemporary Pacific” (Fiona Willans, in collaboration with research assistants from across the region - Salanieta Koro, Fiji; Jim Gure, Vanuatu; 'Elenoa Veikune, Tonga; Timothy Rongoau, Solomon Islands; Nanise Senikabuta, Marshall Islands; Tereise Vaifale, Samoa; Reita Ienraoi, Kiribati; Aleysha Tamakin, Nauru; Tefatu Panapa, Tuvalu), in which we compare the visual representation of languages in urban spaces with the highly multilingual 'soundtracks' of these cities.  

Image source: “Linguistic landscapes of the contemporary Pacific” project (credit: Nanise Senikabuta)

5. Language attitudes, identities and repertoires

Pacific islanders are typically multilingual, which means that they make use of different languages for different purposes and in different contexts. We know anecdotally that many individuals and communities are shifting towards English and other languages of wider communication such as Melanesian Pidgin, but we have limited empirical data that tells us which languages people use, and the extent to which the patterns are indeed changing. Research within this broad area could assess proficiency in different languages, as well as survey the attitudes that speakers hold towards the languages available to them. Data about proficiency and attitudes can be very helpful in informing a range of applied topics such as language revitalisation, teaching, and government policy. If you are interested in this area, you should begin by looking to see what has already been written about use, attitudes and proficiency in your own language and other Pacific languages. Where earlier studies have been conducted, you could consider a follow-up study to capture the extent to which attitudes or usage have shifted over the years. Where no studies exist about your own language, you could consider conducting a similar study to one carried out elsewhere. In both cases, you will need to be critical of the methodology of the original study, but you could contribute valuable new information with a relatively simple research design.

Projects in this area would particularly suit students who are following the MA by SRP route who would like to undertake a study that can contribute new data on which other projects can later build.

Current/former PGR students working in this area:


  • Roshila Singh (MA, 2008, Laucala, Fiji) Language use for interethnic communication among urban Fijians and Indo-Fijians in Suva: Strengthening ties for a common identity

Image source: Fiji Times, 25 January 2020

6. The teaching of Pacific languages as second, additional or heritage languages

People may learn Pacific languages for many different reasons. For example, a Solomon Islander who marries someone from the Marshall Islands may wish to learn Marshallese; a Fijian who speaks Fijian at home may be required to learn Conversational Hindi in school; a Cook Islander raised in New Zealand may wish to learn Cook Islands Māori; a ni-Vanuatu who has grown up speaking his father’s language may move to his mother’s island and start to learn the language of her community; an Australian moving to Kiribati for work may want to learn Te Kiribati; and so on. Language labels such as ‘L2’ are not always very helpful, especially when learners already consider the target language to be their own language (e.g. a NZ-born Cook Islander wanting to learn Cook Islands Māori). However, it is not easy to simply pick up the target language, even if it is part of the learner’s heritage, and in fact it can sometimes be extremely difficult to do so. Learners of ‘their own language’ are usually aware of the pressure to fit into a community to which they feel they should already belong, and, particularly when they know that their language is endangered, they may feel the burden of keeping it alive without really knowing how to. To understand how best to assist different learners with varied needs and motivations, learning a range of different Pacific languages in very diverse contexts, we should turn to principles of second language acquisition, and investigate how to adapt language learning materials and pedagogies for different purposes. There are two broad sub-areas in which we would like to foster new research at USP: the effective teaching of Pacific languages in formal contexts within USP countries (e.g. the school system, or through credit courses at USP) and opportunities for Pacific islanders in diaspora communities to gain proficiency in their own heritage languages (e.g. through online courses or apps, and through community-based initiatives in cities such as Auckland).

Projects in this area would particularly suit students who have taken LN416 (with LN419 also advantageous) and who have experience teaching their own language in schools and/or studying their language as part of an undergraduate Pacific Vernacular Language programme.

Current USP projects in this area:

In 2020, USP is launching a new project in the online teaching of Pacific languages, in order to find ways to reach Pacific islanders in diaspora communities who may wish to learn or improve their knowledge of their heritage language and culture. There is a lot of groundwork for the project to which research students could contribute. For example, students could review the digital resources currently available in and about different Pacific languages, conduct needs analysis to find out what learners want in different contexts, and evaluate online apps and tools in terms of the extent to which they support second language acquisition.

Image source: A CM212 student completing a micro-teaching assignment in Cook Islands Māori (Youtube, 2020)

7. The teaching of English as a second language

For several years now, there has been high-profile media coverage about low levels of English proficiency across the Pacific, and we desperately need some good quality research in this area. To a certain extent, we already know many reasons why students are not learning English well in school (relating to syllabi that are more appropriate for first language speakers of English, and the use of English as the medium of instruction across the curriculum before children have had a chance to learn the language) and we don’t need any vague studies that set out to investigate ‘factors influencing weak proficiency levels’ and so on. However, we do need more classroom-based research that will show us how English is actually being taught (requiring observation of lessons with audio and video recording, as well as analysis of the written texts used and produced). Studies of this nature would provide valuable insights that can inform teacher training and curriculum development.

Projects in this area would particularly suit students who have completed LN416, LN418 and LN419, and who have experience as English teachers at primary or secondary level. Full-time teachers will have to think carefully about practical considerations for collecting their own data if they wish to do classroom-based research (e.g. will you be allowed leave from your own teaching if you decide to conduct research in somebody else’s classroom?).

Current/former PGR students working in this area:

  • Evangeline Narayan (MA by SRP, Labasa, Fiji) Implementing the principles of second language acquisition in unpacking Fiji’s English syllabi
  • Shaleshni Prasad (MA, Lautoka, Fiji) Enhancement of oral proficiency within an undergraduate EAP course
  • Zakia Chand (PhD, 2015, Lautoka, Fiji) Language learning strategies of Fiji students and correlations with academic language proficiency
  • Setsuko Wakabayashi (PhD, 2007, Laucala, Fiji) Cognitive processing in foreign language listening comprehension with video text
  • Mohammed Sameer (MA, 2005, Laucala, Fiji) Teacher talk in Fijian English classrooms

Image source: Headlines from various Fiji Times and Fiji Sun articles

8. Supporting English across the content curriculum

At secondary and tertiary level at least, English is the dominant language used as medium of instruction across the curriculum in the USP region. The assumption is that students should have sufficient proficiency in this language in order to understand and engage with what they are taught, and to demonstrate their knowledge and skills in assessments. However, there are a number of problems with this assumption. Firstly, we know that many students are expected to use English as the medium of instruction and assessment long before they have acquired a high enough level of proficiency in this language. Secondly, we know that the ‘English’ subject is often not designed to support students to use this language across all the other subjects of the curriculum. Thirdly, we know that teachers of other subjects feel either unprepared or unable to help students deal with English at the same time as content in their own classrooms. A lack of confidence and proficiency in the medium of instruction amongst both students and teachers typically leads to teacher-controlled classrooms, dominated by the copying of notes and model answers, rather than the type of learner-centred inquiry-based learning that curriculum documents suggest we are trying to achieve.

Since 2018, we have started to investigate issues relating to English medium instruction at tertiary level (see below), but we also need to move our interest down into the school systems of the different USP countries in order to understand how students are acquiring and being supported to use English for academic purposes across the whole curriculum.

Projects in this area would particularly suit students who have taken LN418 and who have experience teaching both English and a non-language subject. Full-time teachers will have to think carefully about practical considerations for collecting their own data if they wish to do classroom-based research (e.g. will you be allowed leave from your own teaching if you decide to conduct research in somebody else’s classroom?).  

Current USP projects in this area:

Moving academic literacy support into the mainstream (Fiona Willans, Tilisi Bryce, Ralph Buadromo, Rajendra Prasad and Aluwesi Fonolahi), in which we evaluate students' engagement with academic literacy support built into a first-year linguistics course at USP delivered via blended and online modes. Click here to read more about this project. 

Current/former PGR students working in this area:

  • Roshila Singh (PhD, Laucala, Fiji) A case study of academic literacy socialisation at the University of the South Pacific

Image source: Materials developed for an ESL-supported geography lesson in Vanuatu, 2008, Fiona Willans

9. Multilingual education

Multilingual education research investigates the way more than one language is used in the classroom, particularly when teaching subjects other than languages. A multilingual approach to teaching may be formally prescribed (e.g. the policy states that L1 and L2 should each be used for 50% of the time; or that L1 should be used for the first few years before a gradual transition to L2); it may be recommended or sanctioned without any formal guidance (e.g. all classroom materials are in L2 but teachers are encouraged to use L1 to help make sense of them); or it may be a classroom practice that goes on somewhat under the radar (e.g. L1 may officially be prohibited). Official policy in most (but not all) Pacific countries is to use the children’s L1 during the earliest years, before introducing L2 as an additional and then main medium of instruction as children get older. However, there is widespread variation in the ways such policies play out in practice, and we have limited empirical evidence of what is actually going on classrooms. We desperately need such evidence before we can begin to investigate what works and what doesn’t. In the project that we are currently working on at USP (see below), we have collected audio recordings of the way Grade 1 teachers in Fiji use the different languages available to them when teaching multilingual or monolingual classes. We analyse the different functions of what teachers say in different languages (eliciting, controlling behaviour, explaining etc.), and the syntactic and lexical complexity of their talk. This provides an interesting starting point from which Fiji-based research students could develop their own studies with one or more of our participant teachers. At the same time, it provides a research design that students in other countries could use as a framework for their own similar studies.

Projects in this area would particularly suit students who have taken LN416, especially those with experience teaching at primary level. Full-time teachers will have to think carefully about practical considerations for collecting their own data if they wish to do classroom-based research (e.g. will you be allowed leave from your own teaching if you decide to conduct research in somebody else’s classroom?).

Current USP projects in this area:

“Multilingual ECCE: Bringing language policy to life in the Grade 1 classroom” (Fiona Willans & Rajendra Prasad), in which we investigate Grade 1 teacher talk in a range of schools across multilingual Fiji. We analyse the complexity of teacher talk (number of languages, range of vocabulary, proportion of different utterance types, and range of functions), in an attempt to provide some empirical grounding to the debate: Is it really too complex to implement multilingual education?

Image source: Niue Ministry of Education

10. Other topics

Students are also welcome to propose topics in other areas that interest them. However, please discuss your ideas with a member of staff as soon as possible to ensure that your plans are feasible and that we have supervisors available.

Current/former PGR students who have tackled topics that don’t fall into the above areas:

  • ‘Ana Heti Veikune (PhD, Tonga) Fakafeangai in the Tonga classroom: the corner-post for the development of oracy
  • Lose Jenner Helu (MA, 2018, Tonga) Talanoa Ki Uvea: Translations and commentary (A linguistic analysis of evidence of Uvean influence on Tonga)

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School of Language Arts and Media (SLAM)
Faculty of Arts, Law and Education
The University of the South Pacific
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