Professor Elisabeth Holland - Director

Professor Elisabeth Holland is the Director of the Pacific Center for Environment and Sustainable Development (PaCE-SD). She was appointed to this position in early 2013.

Her new appointment comes at a crucial time for the University as it continues to pursue ground breaking work in the area of climate change in line with its five year strategic plan for 2013-2018.

She has long been a leader in studies of the global nitrogen cycle and its interactions with the carbon cycle and the Earth System and as such, Professor Holland is also the Professor of climate change – a position she has held for more than two years now.

In a message to the University community, Deputy Vice Chancellor, Dr Esther Williams described Professor Holland’s appointment as one that will raise the USP’s profile, leadership and work in the area of climate change for the region.

Beth, as she is more affectionately known by her colleagues and friends is an internationally recognised scientist for her work in the Earth System.

In 2007, she was a co-recipient of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for her contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). She is an author of four of the five IPCC reports and also served as a US, German and now a Fiji representative.

With a career spanning more than three decades, Professor Holland is a Leopold scholar and served as a Senior Scientist and Leader of the Biogeosciences Program at the National Centre for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, USA.

While relatively new to the Pacific Islands region, Professor Holland is passionate about working collaboratively with development partners and pacific governments to weave together science, policy and traditional knowledge to sail towards a sustainable resilient future for Pacific communities.
She is also  co-leading the University of the South Pacific EU funded Global Climate Change Alliance Project with Dr. Sarah Hemstock and the remarkable team at the PACE-SD.

The project is devoted to combining science and local knowledge to develop climate change action plans in more than 40 communities in 15 nations throughout the Pacific Island region, including in Melanesia: Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, in Micronesia: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Kiribati, Palau; in Polynesia: Tuvalu, Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga, Niue, East Timor.  The bold letters indicate nations with substantial coral atolls that are at the greatest risk for climate change.


University Appointments

2013-present   Director of PACE-SD, University of the South Pacific

2012-present   Professor of Climate Change, PACE-SD, University of the South Pacific

1995-2001   Affiliate Professor, Forest, Rangeland, & Watershed Stewardship Department, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

1992-present  Affiliate Research Professor, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

1992-present  Graduate Faculty, Environmental and Organismic Biology and Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA

Undergraduate Student Supervision and Mentoring

Supervised 12 undergraduate students

9 have pursued and or received advanced degrees in related fields.

2 students received the prestigious National Science Foundation pre-doctoral  fellowship

Jason Neff, is now an Associate Professor in Geologic Sciences, Hydrologic  Sciences, and Environmental Studies at the University of Colorado


NCAR Faculty Fellowship, 2010

Woman of Achievement, Zonta Foothills Club of Boulder County, 2007-2008

Nobel Peace Prize, awarded to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Al Gore, 2007

Leopold Fellow, 2005

NCAR Leadership Academy, 2003

Gamma Sigma Delta, Honor Society of Agriculture, inducted 1981

Recent Media Coverage

Holland was an active part of the NCAR public outreach following the IPCC report release, and the Nobel Prize awarded to the IPCC in December 2007. She spoke with

many reporters, the including Tod Neff, Boulder Daily Camera, Paula Pant, ColoradoDaily, Juliette Eilperin, Washington Post, Andrew Revkin, New York Times, Beth Daly, Boston Globe and various radio stations, including a 15 minute interview with a San Diego radio station, a 30 minute live radio interview, with Tony Seton, Back on Track,

Quality News Network, video interview, YERT, Your Environmental Road Trip, a front page article and photograph in the

Grand Junction Sentinel, a 15 interview with NPRʼs Earth and Sky program, feature article in Boulder Womenʼs Magazine, “Standing on the Shoulders of Giants” by Erin Love.

100 Biggest Weather Moments Weather Channel Series (April 2007)

The Weather Channel has produced a new series featuring the top 100 Biggest Weather Moments.

index.html#widgetNav Elisabeth Holland (ACD-TIIMES) appears in the following clips #58 – Year without a Summer – Eruption of Mt. Tambora. If TV had existed in 1816, many New Englanders wouldn’t have believed their local weatherman forecasting snow in summer. But sure enough, that’s exactly what fell out

of the sky one day in June.


      Holland, E. A., B. H. Braswell, J. Sulzman, and J.-F. Lamarque. 2005:  Nitrogen deposition for the United States and Western Europe, 1978–1994. [Data set]. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Data Access and Archiving Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

    Holland, EA, J. Lee-Taylor, C. Nevison, and  J. Sulzman. 2005: Global N Cycle: Manure, Fertilizer, Fossil Fuel, Crop N fixation, and N2O. [Data set]. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Prather, M, S. Doney, E. A. Holland, R. Jenne, and J. E. Penner, 1996:  Scientific Environmental AssessmentEOSDIS User Model.  Published at Web site:

Research Grants:

Principal Investigator, Integration of Snohomish Basin Carbon, Nitrogen, and Water Budgets, awarded by the Northwest Fisheries Commission to Tulalip Tribe, Marysville, WA

Co-Principal Investigator, The Cycling of Nitrogen in an Earth System Model: Constraints and Implications for Climate Change, Awarded by the National Science Foundation Emerging Topics in Biogeochemistry. PI-Peter Hess, Cornell University

Principal Investigator, Understanding Land Use and Changing N Deposition awarded by American Association for the Advancement of Science, Women’s International Science Collaboration funded by the National Science Foundation


Co-Investigator:  Carbon, Climate, Society Impacts. Awarded by National Science Foundation Interdisciplinary Graduate Education Research and Training (IGERT).  Submitted by the Environmental Studies Program of the University of Colorado-Boulder with NOAA-CMDL, NCAR (ACD, CGD and SOARS), MPI fürBiogeochemie, and others as collaborators

Co-Principal Investigator:  The Bio-Atmospheric Cycles of Nitrogen and Carbon: Linking Global Air Pollution and Terrestrial Ecosystems, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Other Co-PIs:  B. H. Braswell, J.-F. Lamarque, E. Matthews, and W. J. Parton)

Principal Investigator:  An Integrated Assessment of Biogeochemical Linkages between the Atmosphere and Terrestrial Ecosystems, funded by the National Science Foundation’s Methods and Models for Integrated Assessment Program (Co-PIs: B. H. Braswell, J.-F. Lamarque, E. Matthew, and W. J. Parton)

Principal Investigator: Nitrogen Deposition and Terrestrial Carbon Storage:  Linking Atmospheric Chemistry and the Global Carbon Budget, funded by South-Central NIGEC

Principal Investigator:  Regional and Global Analyses of Soil Carbon Dynamics Process Studies Program Office, Earth Science and Applications Division, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Principal Investigator:  Experimental Studies of Ecosystem Responses to Elevated CO2: Interactions with Nitrogen, Water and Species Characteristics, funded by the  Biotic System and Resources Division, National Science Foundation, and the Department of Energy (Other PIs:  F. S. Chapin III, C. Field, H. A. Mooney)

Principal Investigator:  Modeling NO fluxes from Soils:  A Subproject of Biogenic Hydrocarbon Fluxes in the Southeastern United States, funded by  the Southern Oxidants Study, Southern Oxidant Research Program on Emissions and Effects, Environmental Protection Agency (Co-PIs:  Eric Davidson, A. Guenther, P. Harley, and P. Zimmerman)

Co-Principal Investigator:  Effects of Climate Change in the Colorado Alpine:  Ecosystem Response to Altered Snowpack and Rainfall Regimes, funded by the Long-term Ecological Research Program, Biotic System and Resources Division, National Science Foundation  (PI: T. Seastedt)

Co-Principal Investigator:  Acquisition of an Isotope Facility to Study Atmosphere-Ecosystem Interactions funded by the National Science Foundation, Academic Research Infrastructure Program  (P.I.s:  (D. S. Schimel and E. F. Kelly)

Co-Principal Investigator:  Biosphere/Atmosphere Interactions: Biochemical Causes to Global Implications funded by the National Science Foundation, Biological Instrumentation and Resources, Research Training Groups Program (PI: R. Monson)

Co-Principal Investigator:  Biotic and Abiotic Controls of N2O Fluxes from Alpine Ecosystems funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (PI:  S. Schmidt)

Co-Principal Investigator:  Land Cover Change and Regional Tropospheric Chemistry funded by the National Institute for Global Environmental Change, Department of Energy (PI:  S. R. Archer)


Citation Summary

The total number of citations for the refereed papers listed below is 5,032 with an H index of 32.  The top 17 papers have been cited a 100 times or more and the top 25 papers have been cited 50 times or more.


Holland, E. A., 1988:  Plant carbon allocation and nitrogen cycling in a perennial grassland:  The role of herbivory.  Ph.D. Thesis, Colorado State, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Holland, E.A., 1985:  Crop residue placement on soil processes.  M.S. Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Refereed Journal Articles, * indicates students

Lamarque, Jean-François, L. K. Emmons, C. Heald, E. A. Holland, D. E. Kinnison, P. G. Hess, P. Lauritzen, J. Neu, J. Orlando, P. Rasch, S. Tilmes, F. Vitt. 2012. CAM-chem: description and evaluation of interactive atmospheric chemistry in CESM, accepted, Geoscience Model Development.

Swan, A. I. Fung, E.A. Holland, and J. Chiang. Coherent Variability across the Ameriflux Carbon Flux Tower Network in prep to JGR-Biogeosciences.

Lara, L.L.S, E.A. Holland, P. Artaxo, P.B. Camargo, and L.A. Martinelli, 2011:  Land use and expanding industrialization are changing nitrogen deposition in Brazil. Biogeochemistry, submitted.

Finzi, A.C., J. Cole, S. C. Doney, E. A. Holland, and R. B. Jackson. 2011. Research Frontiers in the Analysis of Coupled   Biogeochemical Cycles. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment,  2011; 9(1): 74–80, doi:10.1890/100137

Schlesinger, W.H. J. Cole, A.C. Finzi and E.A. Holland. 2010.  Coupled Biogeochemical Cycles. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2011; 9(1): 5–8, doi:10.1890/090235

Vitousek, P.M.m, R. L. Naylor, T. Crews, M. B. David, L. E. Drinkwater, E.A. Holland, P. J. Johnes,J. Katzenberger, L. A. Martinelli, P. A. Matson, G. Nziguheba, D. Ojima, C. A. Palm, G. P. Robertson, P. A. Sanchez, A. R. Townsend, F. S. Zhang.  2009. Nutrient Imbalances Along Trajectories of Agricultural Development.  Science Policy Form. Science 324: 1519-1520

Del Grosso, S.J., W.J. Parton, A.R. Mosier, E.A. Holland, E. Pendall, D.S. Schimel, and D.S. Ojima,  2005.  Modeling soil CO2 emissions from ecosystems. Biogeochemistry 73, 71-91.

Lamarque, J. F., J. Kiehl, G. Brasseur, T. Butler, P. Cameron-Smith, W. D. Collins, W. J. Collins, C. Granier, D. Hauglustaine, P. Hess, E. Holland, L. Horowitz, M. Lawrence, D. McKenna, P. Merilees, M. Prather, P. Rasch, D. Rotman, D. Shindell and P. Thornton,  2005:  Assessing future nitrogen deposition and carbon cycle feedback using a multi-model approach. Part 1: Analysis of nitrogen deposition.  J. Geophys. Res., D19303, doi: 10.1029/2005JD005825.

Holland, E.A., A. Guenther, and J. Lee-Taylor, S. B. Bertman, M. A. Carroll, P. B. Shepson, and J. P. Sparks, 2005:  U.S. Nitrogen Science Plan Focuses Collaborative Efforts.  EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 86(27): 253-260.

Holland, E. A., B. H. Braswell, J. Sulzman, and J. F. Lamarque, 2005:  Nitrogen deposition onto the United States and Western Europe: A synthesis of observations and models. Ecological Applications, 15(1)38-57.

Knorr, W., I. C. Prentice, J. I. House, and E. A. Holland, 2005:  Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon turnover to warming. Nature, 433, 298, doi: 10.1038/nature03226.

Throop, H., E.A. Holland, W.J. Parton, D.S. Ojima, C.A. Keough, 2004: Effects of nitrogen deposition and insect herbivory on patterns of ecosystem-level carbon and nitrogen dynamics: Results from the CENTURY model.  Global Change Biology 10, 1092–1105, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00791.x.

Hauglustaine, D. L., F. Hourdin, L. Jourdain, M-.A. Filiberti, S. Walters, J.-F. Lamarque, E. A. Holland, 2004:  Interactive chemistry in the Laboratoire de MeteorologieDynamique general circulation model:  Description and background tropospheric chemistry evaluation.  J. Geophys. Res., 109, D4, DO4314, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003957.

Galloway, J. N., F. J. Dentener, D. G. Capone, E. W. Boyer, R. W. Howarth, S. P. Seitzinger, G. Asner, C.C. Cleveland, P.A. Greene, E. Holland, D. M. Karl, A. F. Michaels, A. R. Townsend, C.J. Vörösmarty, 2004:  Nitrogen cycles: past, present and future.  Biogeochemistry, 70,153-226.

Townsend, A.R., R.W. Howarth, M.S. Booth, C.C. Cleveleand, S.K. Collinge, A.P. Dobson, P.R. Epstein, E.A. Holland, D.R. Keeney, M.A. Mallin C.A. Rogers, P. Wayne, and A.H Wolfe, 2003: Human health effects of a changing global nitrogen cycle.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(1), 240-246

Tie, X.X., A. Guenther, and E. A. Holland, 2003:  Biogenic methanol and its impacts on Tropospheric Oxidants.  Geophys. Res. Lett. 30 (17), 1881, doi: 10.1029/2003GL017167.

Neff, J. C., E. A. Holland, F. J. Dentener, W. H. McDowell, and K. M. Russell, 2002:  The origin, composition and rates of organic nitrogen deposition: A missing piece of the nitrogen cycle?  Biogeochemistry, 57, 99-136.

Hicke, J. A., G. P. Asner, J. C. Jenkins, R. Birdsey, C. J. Tucker, S. O. Los, C. B. Field, and E. A. Holland, 2002:  Satellite-derived increases in net primary productivity across North America, 1982-1998.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10,1029/2001GL013578.

Parton, W. J., E. A. Holland, S. J. Del Grosso, M. D. Hartman, R. E. Martin, A. R. Mosier, D. S. Ojima, and D. S. Schimel, 2001:  Generalized model for NOx and N2O emissions from soils.  J. Geophys. Res., 106, 17,403-17,419.

Pacala, S.W., G. C. Hurtt, R. A. Houghton, R. A. Birdsey, L. Heath, E. T. Sundquist, R. F. Stallard, D. Baker, P. Peylin, P. Ciais, P. Moorcroft, J. Caspersen, E. Shevliakova, B. Moore, G. Kohlmaier, E. Holland, M. Gloor, M. E. Harmon, S.-M. Fan, J. L. Sarmiento, C. Goodale, D. Schimel, and C. B. Field, 2001:  Convergence of land- and atmosphere-based U.S. carbon sink estimates.  Science, 292, 2316-2320.

Monson, R. K., and E. A. Holland, 2001:  Biospheric trace gas fluxes and their control over tropospheric chemistry.  Annual Reviews in Ecology and Systematics, 32, 547-576.

Holland, E. A., J. Neff, A. R. Townsend, and B. McKeown, 2001:  Uncertainties in the temperature sensitivity of decomposition in tropical and subtropical ecosystems: Implications for models.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 1137-1151.

Clark, D. A., S. Brown, D. W. Kicklighter, J. Q. Chambers, J. R. Thomlinson, J. Ni, and E. A. Holland, 2001:  NPP in tropical forests: An evaluation and synthesis of the existing field data.  Ecological Applications, 11, 371-384.

Cardon, Z. G., B. A. Hungate, C. A. Cambardella, F. S. Chapin III, C. B. Field, E. A. Holland, and H. R. Mooney, 2001:  Grassland soil carbon mineralization and organic matter deposition during growth under elevated carbon dioxide.  Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 33, 365-373.

Lee-Taylor, J. M., and E. A. Holland, 2000:  Litter decomposition as a potential natural source of methyl bromideJ. Geophys. Res., 105, D7, doi:10.1029/1999JD901112, 2000

Conley, A. H., E. A. Holland, T. R. Seastedt, and W. J. Parton, 2000:  Simulation of carbon and nitrogen cycling in an Alpine tundra.  Journal of Arctic and Alpine Research, 32, 147-154.

West, A. E., S. K. Schmidt, P. D. Brooks, M. C. Fisk, E. A. Holland, and C. H. Jaeger III, 1999:  Spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 flux across an Alpine tundra landscape.  Biogeochemistry, 45, 243-264.

Holland, E. A., and S. Brown, 1999:  Response to S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J.Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans; North American Carbon Sink. Science, 283, 1815a.

Holland, E. A., 1999: Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from pastures.  Book review, Ecology, 80, 1449-1450.

Holland, E. A., F. J. Dentener, B. H. Braswell, and J. M. Sulzman, 1999: Contemporary and pre-industrial global reactive nitrogen budgets. Biogeochemistry, 46, 7-43.

Martin, R. E., M. C. Scholes, A. R. Mosier, D. S. Ojima, E. A. Holland, and W. J. Parton, 1998:  Controls on annual emissions of nitric oxide from soils of the Colorado shortgrass steppe.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 81-92.

Bryant, D. M., E. A. Holland, T. R. Seastedt, and M. R. Walker, 1998: Analysis of litter decomposition in an  Alpine tundra.  Canadian Journal of Botany, 76, 1295-1304.

Holland, E. A. and J.-F. Lamarque, 1997:  Bio-atmospheric coupling of the nitrogen cycle through NOx emissions and NOy deposition.  Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems  (Special issue on soil NOx emissions), 48, 7-24.

Nevison, C., and E. A. Holland, 1997:  A reexamination of the impact of anthropogenically fixed nitrogen on atmospheric N2O and the stratospheric O3 layer.  J. Geophys. Res., 102, 25,519-25,536.

Hungate, B. A., E. A. Holland, R. B. Jackson, F. S. Chapin III, H. A. Mooney, and C. B. Field, 1997:  The fate of carbon in grasslands under carbon dioxide enrichment.  Nature, 388, 576-579.

Hungate, B. A., F. S. Chapin III, H. Zhong, E. A. Holland, and C. B. Field, 1997:  Stimulation of grassland nitrogen cycling by increased soil moisture under elevated CO2.  Oecologia, 109, 149-153.

Holland, E. A., B. H. Braswell, J.-F. Lamarque, A. Townsend, J. Sulzman, J.-F. Müller , F. Dentener , G. Brasseur, H. Levy II, J. E. Penner, and G.-J. Roelofs, 1997:  Examination of spatial variation in atmospheric nitrogen deposition and its impact on the terrestrial ecosystems.  J. Geophys. Res., 106, 15,849-15,866.

Townsend, A. R., B. H. Braswell, E. A. Holland, and J. E. Penner, 1996:  Spatial and temporal patterns in terrestrial carbon storage due to deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen.  Ecological Applications, 6, 806-814.

Nevison, C. D., G. Esser, and E. A. Holland, 1996:  A global model of changing N2O emissions from natural and perturbed soils. Climatic Change, 32, 327-378.

Neff, J. C., M. Keller, E. Holland, A. Weitz, and E. Veldkamp, 1996:  Fluxes of nitric oxide from soils following the clearing and burning of a secondary tropical rain forest.  J. Geophys. Res., 100, 25,913–25,922.

Freidlingstein, P., I. Fung, E. Holland, J. John, G. Brasseur, D. Erickson, and D. Schimel, 1995:  On the contribution of biosphere CO2 fertilization to the missing sink.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9, 541–556.

Holland, E. A., A. R. Townsend, and P. M. Vitousek, 1995:  Variability in temperature regulation of CO2 fluxes and N mineralization from five Hawaiian soils:  Implications for a changing climate.  Global Change Biology, 1, 115–123.

Archer, S., D. S. Schimel, and E. A. Holland, 1995:  Mechanisms of shrubland expansion:  Land use, climate, or CO2.  Climatic Change, 29, 91–99.

Schimel, D. S., E. A. Holland, B. H. Braswell, R. McKeown, D. S. Ojima, T. Painter, W. J. Parton, and A. R. Townsend, 1994:  Climatic, edaphic and biotic controls over storage and turnover of carbon in soils.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 8, 279–294.

Neff, J. C., W. D. Bowman, E. A. Holland, M. C. Fisk, and S. K. Schmidt, 1994:  Fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane from nitrogen-amended soils in a Colorado alpine ecosystem.  Biogeochemistry, 27, 23–33.

Baron, J., D. S. Ojima, E. A. Holland, and W. J. Parton, 1994:  Nitrogen consumption in high elevation Rocky Mountain tundra and forest:  Implications for aquatic systems. Biogeochemistry, 27, 61–82.

Valentine, D. W., E. A. Holland, and D. S. Schimel, 1992:  Ecosystem and physiological controls over methane production in northern wetlands.  J. Geophys. Res., 99, 1563–1571.

Townsend, A. R., P. M. Vitousek, and E. A. Holland, 1992a:  Tropical soils dominate the short-term carbon cycle feedbacks to increased global temperatures.  Climatic Change, 22, 293–303.

Holland, E. A., W. A. Parton, J. K. Detling, and D. L. Coppock, 1992:  Physiological responses of plant populations to herbivory and their consequences for ecosystem nutrient flow.  American Naturalist, 140, 685–706.

Holland, E. A., and J. K. Detling, 1990:  Plant response to herbivory and below-ground nitrogen cycling.  Ecology, 71, 1040–1049.

Holland, E. A., and D. C. Coleman, 1987:  Litter placement effects on microbial and organic matter dynamics in an agroecosystem.  Ecology, 68, 425–433.


Other Externally Refereed Publications

Halvorssen, A. and E. A. Holland. 2012. Climate Change: Scientific Basis and Statues of the Negotiations of the Treaties.International and Comparative Corporate Law Journal after the summer (No. 2/2012 as part of the Sustainable Companies Project, University of Oslo Norway, Faculty of Law Legal Studies Research Paper Series,, Cambridge Press.

Holland, E.A. The role of soils and biogeochemistry in the Climate and Earth System.  2011. In Sustaining Soil Productivity in Response to Global Climate Change, Thomas Sauer, John Norman eds. Wiley-Blackwell, New York, USA.

  1. Y. Leclerc, E. Holland, T. Foken and N. Pingintha . 2010. Sustainability of Gaia: A Question of Balance Climate Change and Sustainable Development. Ruth Reck (editor).  Linton Atlantic Books.

Armstrong, J.A., S.K. Avery, H.B. Bluestein, E.W. Friday, M.A. Geller, E.A.Holland, C.F. Kolb, M.A. Lemone, R.E. Lopez, S. Solomon, J. M. Wallace, R.A. Weller, S. E. Zebiak,  2007.  Strategic Guidance for the National Science Foundation’s Support of the Atmospheric Sciences.  A.M Staudt and C. Mengelt editors. National Research Council, Washington DC.

Holland, E.A. and many others. Frequently Asked Questions,IPCC, 2007: In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Denman, K, G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong,  P. Ciais, P. Cox, R.E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, C. Heinze,  E. Holland,  D. Jacob, U. Lohmann, S . Ramachandran, P. Leite da Silva Dias, S. C. Wofsy, X. Zhang,  et al., 2007. Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry, Chapter 7.   In, Climate Change 2007, The Physical Science Basis, contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller, Z. Chen (eds.). Cambridge University Press, New York.

House, J., V. Brovkin , R. Betts, B. Constanza, M. Assuncao Silva Dias, B. Holland, C. LeQuere ́, N. K. Phat, U. Riebesell, M. Scholes; A. Arneth, D. Barratt, K. Cassman, T. Christensen, S. Cornell, J. Foley, L. Ganzeveld, T. Hickler, S. Houweling, M. Scholze, F. Joos, K. Kohfeld, M. Manizza, D. Ojima, I. Colin Prentice, C. Schaaf, B. Smith, I. Tegen, K. Thonicke, N. Warwick 2005:  Air Quality and Climate,Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Volume 1, Current States and Trends, R. Hassan, B. Scholes, N. Ash (eds), Island Press, Washington D.C..

Nelson, G.C. E. Bennett, K. Cassman, T. Dietz, A. Dobson, A. Dobermann, E. Holland, E. Lepers, M. Levy, D. Marco, N. Nakicenovic, C. Nevison, B. O’Neill, G. Petschel-Held, P. Pingali, R. Watson, M. Zurek, 2005:  Chapter 7, Drivers of Change in Ecosystem Condition and Services, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Volume 2: Scenarios, R. Hassan, B. Scholes, N. Ash (eds), R. Hassan, B. Scholes, N. Ash (eds), Island Press, Washington D.C..

Holland, E.A., A. Guenther, S.B. Bertman, M.A. Carroll, P. B. Shepson, J.P. Sparks, K. Barney, J. Lee-Taylor, 2005:  A U.S. Nitrogen Science Plan: Terrestrial Exchange of Reactive Nitrogen.

Apps, M., P. Artaxo, D. Barrett, J. Canadell, A. Cescatti, G. Churkina, P. Ciais, E. Cienciala, P. Cox, C. Field, M. Heimann, E. Holland, R. Houghton, V. Jaramillo, F. Joos, M. Kanninen, J.B. Kauffman, W. Kurz, R. D. Lasco, B. Law, Y. Malhi, R. McMurtrie, Y. Morikawa, D. Murdiyarso, S. Nilsson, W. Ogana, P. Peylin, O. Sala, D. Schimel, P. Smith, G. Zhou, and S. Zimov, 2004:  Current scientific understanding of the processes affecting terrestrial carbon stocks and human influences on them. Special technical report, WMO, Geneva.

Armstrong, J.A., S.K. Avery, H.B. Bluestein, E.W. Friday, M.A. Geller, E.A. Holland, C.F. Kolb, M.A. Lemone, R.E. Lopez, S. Solomon, J. M. Wallace, R.A. Weller, S. E. Zebiak,  2004. An Interim report on Strategic Guidance for the National Science Foundation’s Support of the Atmospheric Sciences.  A.M Staudt and C. Mengelt editors. National Research Council, Washington DC.

Austin, A. T., R. W. Howarth, J. S. Baron, F. S. Chapin III, T. R. Christenson, E. A. Holland, M. V. Ivanov, A. Y. Lein, L. A. Martinelli, J. M. Melillo, and C. Shang, 2003:  Human disruption of element interactions: Drivers, consequences and trends for the 21st century.  SCOPE volume, Interactions of the Major Biogeochemical Cycles: Global Change and Human Impacts J.M. Melillo, C.B. Field and B. Moldan (editors), Island Press. Washington D.C.

Schimel, J. P. and E. A. Holland,  2003:  Global greenhouse gases, in Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology.  2nd edition.  D. Sylvia, J. Fuhrmann, P. Hartel, and D. Zuberer (eds.), Oxford University Press, London.

Holland, E. A., and M. A. Carroll, 2003: Atmospheric chemistry and the bio-atmospheric carbon and nitrogen cycles, in SCOPE volume on Interactions of the Major Biogeochemical Cycles: Global Change and Human Impacts, J.M. Melillo, C.B. Field and B. Moldan (editors), Island Press, Washington, D.C..

Holland, E. A., and A. Weitz, 2002:  Nitrogen cycle, in Biological, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, Third Edition, 10, 441-448, R. A. Meyers (ed), Elsevier Press, Washington.

Schmidt, S. K., A. E. West, P. D. Brooks, C. H. Jaeger, M. C. Fisk, and E. A. Holland, 2001:  Soil-atmosphere gas exchange across an Alpine tundra landscape. The Niwot Ridge Alpine Tundra Study. B. Bowman (ed.), Academic Press.

Prentice, I. C., G. D. Farquhar, M. Fasham, M. L. Goulden, M. Heimann, V. J. Jaramillo, H. S. Kheshgi, C. Le Quéré, R. J. Scholes, D. W. R. Wallace, D. Archer, O. Aumont, D. Baker, L. P. Bopp, W. Cramer, I. G. Enting, E. A. Holland, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, A. Ishida, A. K. Jain, F. Joos, T. Kaminski, K. E. Kohfeld, W. Knorr, R. Law, T. Lenton, K. Lindsay, E. Maier-Reimer, A. D. McGuire, R. Meyer, J. C. Orr, S. Piper, K. Plattner, P. J. Rayner, S. Sitch, S. Taguchi, M. F. Weirig, and A. Yool, 2001: The carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2.  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Third Assessment Report (TAR), Working Group I (WGI), in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, J.T. Houghton et al., eds., Cambridge U. Press, New York

Brasseur, G., and E. A. Holland, 2001Uncertainties in the atmospheric chemical system, in Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System.  E. D. Schulze, M. Heimann, S. Harrison, E. Holland, J. Lloyd, C. Prentice, D. Schimel, (eds.), Academic Press.

Graedel, T., D. Polincansky, L. Geller, P. Stern, A. Alldredge, E. Barron, M. Davis, C. B. Field, B. Fischoff, R. Frosch, S. Gorelick, E. A. Holland, D. Krewski, R. Naiman, E. Olmstrom, V. Ruttan, M. Rosenzweig, E. Silbergeld, E. Stolper, and B. L. Turner II, 2001:  Grand Challenges in Environmental Sciences. National Research Council, National Academy Press.

Prather, M., D. Ehhalt, F. Dentener, R. G. Derwent, E. Dlugokencky, E. Holland, I. S. A. Isaksen, J. Katima, V. Kirchhoff, P. Matson, P. M. Midgley, and M. Wang, Chapter 4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases, in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, J.T. Houghton et al., eds., Cambridge U. Press, pp. 239-287, 2001.

Holland, E. A. 1999:  Contributing author, Atmospheric Chemistry. G. Brasseur, G.  Tyndall, and J. Orlando, (eds.) Academic Press, New York.

Robertson, G. P., D. Wedin, P.M. Groffman, J. M. Blair, E. A. Holland, K. J. Nadelhoffer, and D. Harris, 1999:  Soil carbon and nitrogen availability: Nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and soil respiration potentials. Chapter 13, in LTER Soils Method Standardization Volume. P. Robertson, C. Bledsoe, D. C. Coleman, and P. Sollins, (eds.), Academic Press.

Groffman, P.M., E. A. Holland, D. D. Myrold, G. P. Robertson, and X. Zou, 1999:   Denitrification, Chapter 14, in LTER Soils Method Standardization Volume.  P. Robertson, C. Bledsoe, D. C. Coleman, and P. Sollins (eds.) Academic Press.

Holland, E. A., 1999: The nitrogen cycle, in Encyclopedia of Geochemistry. C. P. Marshall, and R. W. Fairbridge, (eds.),  Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordecht, The Netherlands.

Holland, E. A., J. Greenberg, P. Robertson, R. Boone, and P. Groffman, 1999: Measurement of soil CO2, N2O, and CH4 exchange, in LTER Soils Method Standardization Volume.  P. Robertson, C. Bledsoe, D. C. Coleman, and P. Sollins, (eds.), Academic Press.

Schimel, J. P., and E. A. Holland, 1997:  Global Gases, in Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology.  D. Sylvia, J. Fuhrmann, P. Hartel, and D. Zuberer (eds.), Oxford University Press.

Chameides, W., J. Anderson, M. A. Carroll, J. Hales, D. Hofman, B. Huebert, J. Logan, A. R. Ravishankara, D. Schimel, M. Tolbert, C. Ennis, D. Fahey, I. Fung, E. A. Holland, C. Kolb, P. Reich, P. Sampson, and P. Tans, 1996: Atmospheric Chemistry Research:  Entering the 21st Century.  National Academy Press, Washington D.C.

Allen-Diaz, B., F. S. Chapin, S. Diaz, M. Howden, J. Puidefabregas, M. Stafford, T. Benning, F. Bryant, B. Campbell, J. duToit, K. Galvin, E. Holland, L. Joyce, A. K. Knapp, P. Matson, R. Miller, D. Ojima, W. Polley, T. Seastedt, A. Suarez, T. Svejcar, C. Wessman, W. N. Ekaya, J. Ellis, L. D. Incoll, J. Kinyamario, C. Magadza, T. Oikawa, O. Sala, C. Scoppa, N. Maceira, and R. Rodriguez, 1996:  Grassland and Rangelands.  Chapter 2, Climate Change 1995, Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses, Contribution of Working Group II to the  Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel Climate Change, R. T. Watson et al., eds., Cambridge University Press, New York.

Field, C. B., F. S. Chapin III, N. R. Chiariello, E. A. Holland, and H. A. Mooney, 1995:  The Jasper Ridge CO2 experiment:  Design and Motivation, in Ecosystem Response to Elevated CO2. G. W. Koch and H. A. Mooney, (eds.), Academic Press.

Schimel, J. P., E. A. Holland, and D. Valentine, 1993: Controls on methane flux from terrestrial ecosystems in Agricultural Ecosystem Effects on Trace Gases and Global Climate Change. L. Harper, A. Mosier, J. M. Duxbury, and D. Rolston, (eds.)  Am. Soc. Agron. Special Pub. No. 55.

Townsend, A., S. Froelking, and E. A. Holland, 1992b:  Carbon cycling in high latitude ecosystems, in Modeling the Earth System, Proceedings of 1990 OIES Global Change Institute.  D. Ojima, (ed.) UCAR Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies, Boulder, Colorado.

Non-refereed Publications

Holland, E.A. and S. Doney, 2005:  Inez Fung wins Revelle Medal, 2005.  Citation published EOS.

Gosz, J. R., and P. S. Murdoch (convening authors), E. A. Holland (contributing author), 1999: Integrating the Nation’s Environmental Monitoring and Research Programs: An Exercise Using Nitrogen Enrichment to Demonstrate the Value of Index Sites in a National Network.  Report Prepared for the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP).